Internet Protocol Version 4(IPv4) is a protocol widely used for data communication over various types of networks. It is configured manually or automatically to serve a wide range of devices. It uses 32 bit addresses. The major characteristic of IPv4 addresses is that two devices on the internet cannot have the same address at the same time (Bagad & Dhotre, 2006). The address structure was originally defined with network ID and host ID. The network ID identifies the network to which a particular host is connected. The host ID identifies the network connection to the host rather than the actual host.
In IPv4 addresses, the IP corresponds to the network layer in the OSI reference model. It provides a connectionless best- effort delivery service to the transport layer. An internet protocol (IP) address has a fixed length of 32 bits. They are usually written in dotted decimal notation so they can be easily communicated to the users (Bagad & Dhotre, 2006).
The address is broken into four bytes with each byte being represented by a decimal number and separated by a dot. For example an IP address of 10000000 10000111 01000100 00000100 is written as 220.127.116.11 in dotted decimal notation. Further, IP addresses are generally divided into five classes: A, B, C, D and E.
Web 2.0 applications are based on a client/server model. Its social layer has concepts of aggregating multiple sources and sharing with others. It has different techniques to enable its conformity to the typical web (Vernet et al, 2007). The title and description use edit-in-place techniques that do not show the HTML form inputs if the user is not using them. Ajax is used to refresh the information regularly; moreover, it prevents the page from reloading.
The typical features of a page are menu bar, title and description area. It also has a control panel that consists of a quotation chart, quotes, financial news and the latest deli.cio.us bookmarks. In addition, the menu items like File, Edit, View etc. are located in the menu bar (Vernet et al, 2007). The file has two sub items that enables the user to save a page on the server or create a new one. The view sub item is used to define the control panel that will be displayed.
Reasons for Computer Vulnerabilities
Portable storage media such as CDs and usb flash drives with confidential information are prone to theft, and thus, the content of such media is exposed to unauthorized access. Moreover, a person responsible for burning some important records on two CDs can forget to do it. In this scenario, someone can have an unauthorized access to the information especially if it is left on a computer with a shared log in.
At the same time, removable devices can spread viruses that are located in a boot sector of a hard disk. When a computer boots up, a virus will run instead of normal system files even when anti-virus software has been installed. This happens if the computer boots up while a device is left in the drive. If the virus will be configured to the disk too, it will later spread to another computer in case the infected disk is used.
Further, when implementing anti-malware software on a network, one of the most crucial decisions is where to install the software. The software is installed on every desktop as the most likely point of entry (Dean, 2012). However, the most important files that can be affected are ignored.
These are files that are stored on the server and are exposed to security vulnerabilities. In addition, malware programmers have become more sophisticated in disguising their software by using encryption and polymorphism in order to prevent detection. Unsuspecting users can transmit viruses and malware programs especially through internet games, when accessing unsecured sites and while downloading files.
Some viruses take the form of a macro like the one used in a word-processing and spreadsheet program. In this case, it will be executed as the user works with a program (Dean, 2012). For example, a user might send a MS Word document as an attachment.
If the document contains a macro virus, when the recipient opens it, the virus will run. All the future documents created and saved by that program are infected. On the other hand, file-infector viruses attach themselves to executables files. When an infected file runs, the virus will copy itself to memory where it stays unnoticed by the user leading to devastating consequences.
Present Regulations and Laws Regarding the Internet
The main purpose of such policies is to protect an organization, its employees and its resources. Policies can help in addressing such issues as data theft protection (Kutais, 2006). Most states recognize at least one of the four privacy torts: unreasonable intrusion into one`s personal activities, public disclosure of private facts, false publications and misappropriation of a person’s identity for commercial purposes.
The Electronic Communications Privacy Act requires that the electronic communications should be intercepted. However, the privacy of the stored electronic messages should be guaranteed (Kutais, 2006). The Act is used to prevent unauthorized network and data access. It also prevents sharing of personal information by financial institutions without a consumer`s prior consent.
Bagad, V. S., & Dhotre, I. A. (2006). Computer communication networks. Pune: Technical Publications.
Dean, T. (2012). Network+ guide to networks (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Kutais, B. G. (Ed.). (2006). Focus on the Internet. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
Van der Vlist, E., Ayers, D., Bruchez, E., Fawcett, J., & Vernet, A. (2007). Professional web 2.0 programming. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley Publishing Inc.